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Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw), Migration (Hijrah/Hijrat)

Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw), Migration (Hijrah/Hijrat)Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) was well aware of the fact that people who were plunged in prejudice, superstition and ignorance would not abandon their beliefs and ways easily and that it would take extensive struggle, severe hardships, and sincere self sacrifice to save them from the pit of corruption and guide them onto the path of virtue and monotheism. He could easily read in the faces of the people of Makkah, the opposition to Islam and their bigoted determination to fight the Muslims.

The divine foresight of Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) had given him a dark image of the future. With such an insight and divine knowledge, he held high the banner of prophecy and adopted patience and tolerance. Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) struggled with the enemies of Islam in Makkah for 13 years and resisted all their torments and obstructions, but the opponents of Islam did not give up their devilish beliefs and manner and utilized all their power to destroy Islam. Under such circumstances, the universal mission of Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) necessitated his migration to a calm, suitable place and to find a new arena for his work and mission.

Yathrib - Ready to submit to Islam and Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw)

At the time of the pilgrimage to the Kaaba, some of the men of importance of the Khazraj tribe came to Makkah and met with Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) in the Masjid al-Haram. He explained the divine faith of Islam to them and encouraged them to believe in this religion, which is the faith of peace and fraternity. The Khazraj chiefs, who were tired of their deep-rooted disputes and conflicts with the Aws tribe, felt that Islam was exactly what they needed, and so they most willingly submitted to Islam.

When the Khazrajis, who had become Muslim, were about to return to Yathrib, they asked Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) for a missionary, and he assigned Mus'ab ibn Umair (first envoy of Islam) to accompany them. Thus, the people of Yathrib were informed of the rising sun of Islam and hurried to gain information about the new faith.

The most effective factor in making the people ready and eager to adopt Islam was listening to the luminous verses of Noble Qur'an. Mus'ab ibn Umair reported the conversion to Islam of the chiefs and leaders of both the Khazraj and Aws tribes to Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw). Later on, a large number of the people of Yathrib who had come to Makkah to take part in the Hajj pilgrimage held a secret meeting with Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) at midnight and swore allegiance to support him just as they supported and protected their own families.

Plot to murder Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw)

Plot to murder Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw)Dawn had hardly broken when the infidel Quraish were informed of the allegiance of the Yathribi Muslims. They hurriedly attempted to frustrate it and hinder the advance of Islam. For this purpose, they held a council in the place where the Quraish gathered to pass judgment and to consult each other. After a great deal of talk and consultation, it was resolved that they select one man from each tribe to rush into the house of Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) at night and murder him so that the basis of the propagation of Islam would be destroyed. This plan was approved and 40 young men were selected to carry out the cowardly deed.

But Almighty Allah (SWT) made Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) aware of the intrigue of his enemies and commanded him to leave Makkah by night. Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw), upon receiving this revelation, decided to leave his homeland and migrate to Yathrib.

In Noble Qur'an, Allah (SWT) says: "And when those who disbelieved devised plans against you that they might confine you or slay you or drive you away; and they devised plans and Allah too had arranged a plan; and Allah is the best of planners." (8:30)

Imam Ali's (as) sincere and significant self-sacrifice

When Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) was divinely commanded to migrate to Yathrib, he called Imam Ali (as), disclosed his secret to him, gave him the people's trusts to be returned to their owners and then said, 'I have to migrate, but you must lie in my bed'.

Even though Imam Ali (as) knew that the enemies of Islam wanted to murder Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) and that if he slept in Prophet Muhammad's (saw) bed his life would be at stake, he did not hesitate to risk his life to protect Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) and Islam. Imam Ali (as) was very happy to do this for Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw). In fact Imam Ali (as) said that the best sleep that he had ever had was on that night (Shab-E-Hijrat).

Imam Ali's (as) self-sacrifice was so sincere and significant that Allah (SWT) praised it in Noble Qur'an as: "And among men is he who sells his Nafs (self) in exchange for the pleasure of Allah." (2:207)

Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) goes to cave of Thaur (Thawr cave)

Cave of Thaur (Thawr cave)At midnight the enemies of Islam surrounded the house of Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) to carry out their satanic plot. But since Allah (SWT) was the supporter and protector of Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw), He saved him from harm at the hands of the murderous infidels.

When half the night was over, Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) left his house to begin his journey. As he came out of the house he threw some sand towards the men who were waiting to kill him and recited the following verse of Noble Qur'an: "And We have made before them a barrier and a barrier behind them, then We have covered them over so that they do not see." (36:9)

While Imam Ali (as) lay on his bed, Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) began his journey out of Makkah. Before he had left the city, he met Abu Bakr on the way and took him along with him. Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) knew that the Quraish would waste no time in pursuing him once they learnt of his departure, so he took refuge in the cave of Thaur (Thawr cave), which was to the south of Makkah on the way to Yathrib.

The infidels rushed towards Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam's (saw) bed with drawn swords in their hands, but to their surprise, they found Imam Ali (as) in his place. Upset and enraged, they asked, where has Muhammad gone? Imam Ali (as) answered, 'Had you assigned me to watch him? Well, you intended to expel him and he has left the city.'

Realizing that all their plots were frustrated, the idol worshipping Quraish took serious measures but all in vain.

Moral of the story: When you do something purely for Islam, then Allah (SWT) helps you. Everyone can plan but only what Allah (SWT) wants will happen.

On the way to Yathrib, cave of Thaur (Thawr cave) and Quba

When the Quraish found out that Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) had left Makkah, they sent men to block all routes leading to Yathrib. They also hired some men who could trace the location of travellers by their footprints. It was declared that whoever gave correct information about the hiding place of Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) would be rewarded with 100 camels.

One of the best trackers of the Quraish, a man named Abu Karz, traced the footprints of Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) to the cave of Thaur. However, when some men came near the mouth of the cave, they saw that its entrance was blocked by a spider's web and some wild pigeons had laid eggs in a nest at the entrance. The men knew that the spider and pigeons would not have made their homes there if there had been anyone in the cave. Also, if the web had been there from before, it would have been damaged if someone had entered the cave. They therefore returned without looking inside. By this miracle Allah (SWT) protected His beloved messenger.

12th of Rabi al-Awwal, QubaMohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) remained in the cave for three days and nights. On one of these nights Imam Ali (as) came to visit him. Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) told him to arrange for camels for Abu Bakr and himself. He also directed him to announce in Makkah the following day that if anybody had left something in trust with Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw), or had loaned him anything, he should claim it from Imam Ali (as). He further instructed Imam Ali (as) to make arrangements for the Fawaatim (The three Fatimas - Fatima al-Zahra (sa), Fatima bint Asad and Fatima bint Zubayr), as well as any other members of Bani Hashim who wished to leave Makkah. Imam Ali (as) was to escort these people personally to Yathrib.

After staying in the Thawr cave for three days, Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) proceeded towards Yathrib. One of the Makkans, Saraqa ibn Malik, attempted to pursue him, but his horse's hoof sank into the ground three times and threw him down, so he repented and returned to Makkah.

On the 12th of Rabi al-Awwal, Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) reached a place called Quba, where he stayed for a few days. Abu Bakr insistently asked Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) to begin travelling towards Yathrib, but Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) refused to go without Imam Ali (as). He said to Abu Bakr, Ali has endangered his own life to save mine. He is my cousin, my brother, and the dearest among the family to me. I will not leave here until he joins me.

After fulfilling the mission assigned to him and having arranged for the safe departure of Prophet Muhammad's family members to Yathrib, Imam Ali (as) hastened forward on foot to Yathrib, travelling only in the night and hiding himself in the day, lest he should fall into the hands of the Quraish. He reached Quba three days after the arrival of Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw), but his legs were so bruised that he could hardly walk. Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) embraced him most affectionately, blessed his hurt legs with the saliva from his own mouth which healed Imam Ali's (as) swollen legs.

The converts at Quba desired Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) to lay the foundation stone of a mosque for them. Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) marked the site and fixing the position of Qibla, he laid the foundation stone for the first mosque of Islam. Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) used to pray Qasr while waiting for Imam Ali (as). It is mentioned in the Noble Qur'an as the mosque founded on piety and devoutness.

Then Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) left Quba on the 16th of Rabi al-Awwal towards Yathrib.

Yathrib eagerly awaiting Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw)

Medinat ul-Nabi, City of Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw)Yathrib had taken on an extraordinary air and intense excitement and eagerness had overtaken the whole city. In every alley and neighbourhood people impatiently awaited Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw).

He entered Yathrib on Friday. People were overjoyed and could not stop looking at the resplendent countenance of Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw). Each tribe, which he passed through, desired the honour of his presence and requested him to take up his abode with them. Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw), refusing all these offers, said that the camel, which he rode on, was inspired and would take him to the proper quarter. The camel proceeded on to the eastern sector and knelt down in the open courtyard of the Banu Najjar, near the house of Khalid ibn Zayd, known in history as Abu Ayyub al-Ansari, the then head of the Banu Najjar family. He was delighted to be fortunate to have the honour of Prophet Muhammad's (saw) presence.

Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) took up his temporary residence in the house of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari for seven months, until the Masjid-E-Nabawi, with proper quarters for himself, was built in the courtyard where the camel had stopped.

Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) settled in Yathrib and there laid the foundations of Islam and a magnificent culture based on justice and faith.

After the blissful entrance of Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) into Yathrib, its name was changed into Medinat ul-Nabi, meaning 'the City of Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw)'. That year, the year Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) migrated (Hijrah/Hijrat 622CE) at the age of 53 years from Makkah to Yathrib (Madinah), was recognized as the origin of history (beginning of the Islamic Era or the Hijrah calendar), due to this significant historical event, the triumph of righteousness and justice. The illuminating sun of Islam gave new life to the people. They discarded all the old superstitious beliefs and thoughts and all the wrong deeds and manners of the past, replacing them with the perfect life-giving culture of Islam.

Note: When we say 1430 Hijrah, it means that 1430 years have passed since the time of Prophet Muhammad's (saw) flight (Hijrah) from Makkah to Medinah.

Laying the Foundation for an Islamic Fraternity in Medinah

Madinah, Masjid-E-NabawiThe existence of sympathy, sincerity, and harmony among the people of a society makes that society a living one - one that is fit for human life and evolution, in which all can find salvation and progress and can enjoy each other's sympathy and sincerity.

In the process of establishing such an ideal human society, Islam does not pay the least bit of attention to such considerations as race, language, skin colour, and geographical location. Rather, this holy religion regards all Muslims as equal. It looks only at the people's faith in Allah (SWT), which is the root of all unity.

'Islamic brotherhood' is the phrase best revealing this all embracing unity. This meaningful, clear expression in Noble Qur'an describes this Islamic precept: 'Truly the faithful are brothers.' (49:10)

After having settled in Medinah and after building a mosque (Masjid-E-Nabawi) that was indeed the military and constitutional base of the Muslims, Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) took an excellent initiative. He laid the foundation of Islamic brotherhood, individually between the people of Medina (known as Ansar/Helpers) and the people of Makkah (known as Muhajir/Emigrants), so that great unity and sincerity would be engendered in Muslim society and so that the emigrant Muslims would know that, though they had lost a number of their friends and relatives and had been forced to leave their homes, in return, they had gained brothers who were much more loyal and sympathetic from every point of view.

Therefore, besides the general fraternity and brotherhood that exists among all Muslims, Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) concluded contracts of brotherhood among his followers. He proclaimed brotherhood to be a general law amongst the Muslims and taking into consideration their ranks and positions, established the bond between every two persons by making one the brother of the other; Abu Bakr with Umar ibn al-Khattab, Uthman with Abd ar-Rahman and so on. Amirul Mumineen, Imam Ali (as) had stretched himself on the ground, when Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) approached him and said: "Arise, O' Abu Turab! By Allah (SWT)! I have not made you the brother of anyone for I have kept you for myself" and said, 'Ali is my brother.'

Laying the Foundation for an Islamic Fraternity in MedinahOne of the requirements of Islamic brotherhood is that whatever a Muslim desires for himself, he should desire for his brother in Islam, and he should help his Muslim brothers by any means possible, whether by his wealth or by his speech or by any other means.

It was the principle of Islamic brotherhood that made the Ethiopian Bilal ibn Rabah and the Persian Salman Farsi brothers and two of the best companions of Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) of Islam. In the light of Islamic brotherhood, many deep-rooted enmities were reconciled and divided groups were united. This unity requires that all Muslims share each other's sorrows and joys like members of a large family. Muslims should be sincere and affectionate toward each other, and their watchword should be unity and brotherhood.

Islamic brotherhood firmly holds all Muslims responsible toward each other and establishes an all-embracing responsibility so that Muslims cannot be heedless of each other's troubles and problems but every Muslim must, within his own abilities; endeavour to solve the problems of Muslims and to create possibilities for the advancement and promotion of Islam. Thus Islam began to flourish with its enormous luminosity.

Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) said:

"Shall I not introduce 'a believer' to you? A believer is the one whom other believers trust with their souls and wealth. Shall I not introduce 'a Muslim' to you? A Muslim is the one from whose hand and tongue other Muslims are safe... It is unlawful (Haram) for a believer to do wrong against another believer, or leave him/her in a lurch, or backbite against him/her, or suddenly reject him/her."

"Believers are brethren, their lives are equal to each other and they are as one hand against their enemy."

Helpless Idol: uselessness of worshipping an idol in Madinah

Helpless Idol: uselessness of worshipping an idol in MadinahIt was hardly three years since the people of Madinah had embraced Islam and had started to worship Almighty Allah (SWT). The young boys in the city were given a job to eradicate the worship of idols. Wherever they saw an idol, they destroyed it and set fire to it.

One day, young boys came to know that Omar bin Janab, the chief of Bani Salma tribe, had still preserved his idol and worshipped it. In order to impress upon him the uselessness of worshipping an idol made of wood, they removed it from his place and threw it down a pit. The chief of Bani Salma tribe, on tracing the idol to where it was lying brought it back, washed it and kept it in its original place. But the next day again it was removed and thrown into the pit.

The chief of Bani Salma tribe was very much disturbed at this or the last he brought home this idol and cleaned it. He then put his sword around its neck and said to the idol: "If henceforth anybody comes to you, promptly take action and kill him with the sword."

On the next day, the idol was again missing. This time he found it tied to a dead body of a dog. There was no effect at all of the sword which he had tied around the neck of the idol. This incident made him lose faith in his man-made wooden idol. He abandoned the idol worship altogether. On becoming a Muslim, he uttered a poem as under:

"Alas O my idol! If you were my god, you would not have reached this stage and I would not have seen you in the pit along with a dead dog. I have now put my faith in the Almighty Allah (SWT), from Whom come all blessings. It is He Who has freed me from darkness of ignorance."

This is one of the examples of how the young Muslim volunteers of Medinah helped Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) in putting an end to idol worship and spread the true message of Islam.

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Islamic Moral Stories is designed by Akramulla Syed Last Updated: Friday, February 12, 2010