The tribe of Quraish was taken into consideration as one of the most respectable and honorable one amid the honorable Arab tribes of Hijaz (The land which is now known as Saudi Arabia was known as Hijaz before the Saudi dynasty came into existence).
The great grand father of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) known as Kisa Bin Kalab was custodian of the Kaabah (The Haram of God). Quraish were divided into many different groups and Bani Hashim was the noblest one out of them.
Hashim was considered to be a noble, wise and honorable one among the people of Mecca. He helped and assisted the residents of Mecca and started the trading business in the summer and winter for the betterment of their lives. Therefore, the people gave him the title of Syed. This is the very reason why those who are his successors and out of his and Prophet's race are known as Syeds. The sons of Hashim following him known as Mutalib and Abdul Mutalib became the guardians and custodians of Quraish. Abdul Mutalib was a great personality. This was during his age that Abraha attacked Kaabah, but the Almighty God destroyed him. This added to the greatness of Abdul Mutalib. He loved Abdullah very much. Abdullah was married to the noble girl Amina at the age of twenty-four years.
Two months after the event of Amul-feel Amina bore a child who was named Mohammad (P.B.U.H.). Before the Birth of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) his father Abdullah had passed away and after a short period his mother too breathed her last. The Prophet's (P.B.U.H.) grandfather Abdul Mutalib took over as his guardian. The son of Abdullah, the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) with the grace and mercy of God grew up to be such a young man with spiritual purity that the people of Mecca loved him and used to keep their belongings in his custody. This is the reason he was called "Amin."
The Prophet (P.B.U.H.), with his force of faith, backed and assisted the poor and oppressed ones, took his meals along with them, lent ear to their words and solved their problems.
The Prophet (P.B.U.H.), when some of the young ones organized an association known as the "Commitment of youths", joined them and started backing them because their aim was supporting the tyrannized ones and waging jihad (holy war) against the tyrants and cruel ones.
The Prophet (P.B.U.H.), as his uncle Abu Talib (A.S.) advised him, joined the trade caravan of Khatija (A.S.) and due to his correct and right work became the leader of the caravan.
After some time Khatija (A.S.) got impressed by his virtues and wished his hand in marriage. He accepted the proposal and the richest lady of Quraish put all her wealth into his feet (This wealth which was the greatest possible treasure of the Arab world of those days, was later on used by him for the sake of helping poor Muslims and spreading Islam) and at his disposal.
Khatija (A.S.) gave birth to Fatima (A.S.), to whose race belong all the Infallible Imams of Islamic Ummah.
The Sagacity of Prophet (P.B.U.H.)
After ten years of his marriage a strong flood came to Mecca, which divested and plundered the Khanae Kaabah. To avoid dispute, the work of reconstruction of Kaabah was distributed among various tribes but when the building construction was completed and the time for fixing the Hajar-e-Aswad (a black stone fixed on a corner of Kaabah) approached, every tribe had the desire to achieve the honor of fixing it.
They got very close to a war. He gave the decision that the Hajar-e-Aswad be placed on a sheet of cloth and all of them should carry it together and erect it.
Commencement of the Prophetic Mission
At the age of forty years the Mohammad (P.B.U.H.) was appointed as Prophet.
One day when he was busy offering his prayers and was worshipping God at the Cave of Hara (The Cave of Hara is known as Kooh-e-noor is about 6 KM from Mecca towards Mina) angel Gabriel brought him revelation from God that he was chosen as Prophet.
After the revelation he went to take rest at his home. Once again, the angel Gabriel descended and reveled the revelation of God to him for starting the religious propagation.
To start with, Prophet (P.B.U.H.) secretly propagated and a few men secretly accepted Islam. First of all, his wife accepted his Prophesy and then Hazrat Ali (A.S.). He leveled the ground and made the atmosphere for propagation ready for as long as three years.
God commanded him to invite the people towards one single God and start a holy war and crusade against the idols.
This was a dangerous and perilous job because the chiefs of the tribes had achieved the status of Kings and Monarchs and had made all the others their slaves. Secondly it appeared to be difficult to break the idols those, which had been worshipped by them, for ages.
But there was no alternative except to tolerate and bear the difficulties for the sake of achievement of the goal and high aim of monotheism and constitution of Taw hid (One Gad).
After the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) had extended the common invitation, people started their resistance and enmity.
In the beginning, they tried to stop him (P.B.U.H.) by offering bribe. But when they did not succeed, they used power and started teasing, torturing, plundering the assets and making fun and cracking jokes with his followers but this attempt also failed to stop the mission of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.).
The polytheists boosted up their brutalities and violence and ousted the Prophet along with his family and followers out of Mecca.
Therefore, these people were forced to live in Shaab-e-Abu Talib for three years, so as to get themselves saved from the evil activities of the enemy. But the enemies did not content themselves and restrict their activities to this.
They even besieged the Shaab-e-Abu Talib so that the food and water does not reach them.
Some people played upon their lives to get them food in the darkness of the night.
So the time kept on passing till the polytheist gave way to the strong will and determination of the Muslims and decided to Kill the Prophet (P.B.U.H.). They planned to select one young man from each and every tribe and family so that no one should be able to ask them for blood money. They fixed a particular night to attack the Prophet's house and martyr him.
Migration to Madinah
The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) came to know about their plan through revelation. Out of his lovers, this was only Ali (A.S.) who chose to lie down upon his bed and sacrifice his own life for the Prophet (P.B.U.H.). The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) migrated from Mecca under the cover of darkness of night. The polytheists gathered on the specified time on that night to attack the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) but when they saw Ali (A.S.) on the bed of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) they were astonished and immediately started the pursuit of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) but they came back without achieving their end.
The Prophet (P.B.U.H.), after a tiresome and inconvenient journey reached Quba, a place near Madinah, where the inhabitants of Madinah greeted and welcomed the Prophet (P.B.U.H).
After reaching this place the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) planned to construct the Quba Mosque, so that the Muslims may gather there to offer their prayers and start planning about their constructional works.
The work of the Mosque construction proceeded swiftly. The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) also helped during the work. After the work got accomplished the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) offered the first ever Juma prayer in the same Mosque. The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) delivered a short speech and waited for his representative Ali (A.S.) to come and join him along with the ladies of Bani Hashim and then they enter the city together.
Ali (A.S.) remained in Mecca for 3 days after the Prophet's (P.B.U.H.) departure and surrendered all the deposits which the people had kept with the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) Then Ali (A.S.) left Mecca for Madinah along with the ladies of Bani Hashim at midnight and later joined the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) at Quba.
The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) along with Ali (A.S.) and the ladies entered the city of Madinah where a warm welcome of the city inhabitants was awaiting them. Everyone was requesting the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) to be his guest. But he (P.B.U.H.) said leave the way of my camel, I (P.B.U.H.) will become the guest of the person on whose door the camel shall sit down.
The camel kept moving and crossing the streets of Madinah till She sat down on the door of Abu Ayub Ansari and the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) became the guest of him.
After reaching Madinah, first of all the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) laid the foundation of the Mosque so as to start the preaching and propagation of his religion from this great and glorious base.
The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) immediately put and end to the war of Aus and Khizra's tribes, which were going on for a hundred and twenty years on the provocation of the Jews and made them, enter a truce.
The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) created the "brotherhood" between the Muhajireen (immigrants) and Ansar (aiders) so that they do not become a burden upon the later and they could live their lives together.
The Jews of Madinah who had the keys to the economy of that place felt a danger approaching them, so they spoiled and deterred their relations with the Muslims. They wanted to deter and finish the unity of Muslims and kill them. But the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) was fully aware of their activities and thus he would nullify and counter all their conspiracies.
The Deviation of Qiblah
The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) used to offer his prayers facing Aqsa Mosque of the Jerusalem for a period of thirteen years in Mecca and one year and five months in Madinah. The Jews objected to it and said if we are not on the right path then why do you offer your prayers facing our Qiblah.
After all, one day Jabriel (A.S.) descended from the heaven along with the revelation at a time when the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) was busy offering his prayer he said: God has ordered you to turn your face towards the Kaabah. Just now.
From that time onwards Masjid-ul Haram (Kaabah) is the Qiblah of Muslims. The Jews felt bad about it and objected upon Muslims and said if Kaabah was your Qiblah then why did you offer your prayers facing Masjid-ul Aqsa (Jerusalem)?
They were unaware of the fact that the change of Qiblah occurred for the very reason to distinguish the friends and enemies of Islam. So that those who obey the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) are distinguished from those who disobey and oppose him.
1. The Battle of Badr
When the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) gathered fighting force, and army, he first of all made truce pacts with the tribe living all around Madinah so that the danger of expected attacks be pacified and nullified. He simultaneously made up his mind to attack one of the large caravans of Quraish infidels which was to cross by Madinah and head towards Syria so that the defenders of infidelity and polytheism be punished and, taken to task and there pride be shattered, and at the same time they should be given the answer for plundering the wealth, belonging and winning of the houses of Muhajireen (immigrants) by them.
This battle is named the battle of Badr because it took place near the well-named Badr.
The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) fought this battle after consulting the political elements and had taken steps after getting full information about the exact position of the enemy. His companions succeeded in the Shade of faith and the polytheists were defeated.
2. The Battle of Uhad
The victory of Muslims in the Badr battle had made the polytheists very annoyed and angry. At the height and peak of anger Abu Sufian announced that nobody should mourn the death of his Kith and Kin.
On the other hand, the Jews were greatly terrified and afraid from the success the Muslims had achieved. That was the very reason why a Jew named Kaab Ibne Ashraf went to Mecca and recited emotion evoking poems and made the infidels of Quraish weep over their killed ones and provoked them to take revenge.
As a result, the Quraish held a meeting at Darun Nadva during which they assessed and estimated the cost of the next battle around fifty thousand golden Dinars.
Right from that moment, they started procuring and gathering the war weapons and also took help and aid from the tribes living in the surroundings of Mecca.
The Method of Departure
The army of polytheists consisting upon three thousand warriors headed to Madinah.
Abbas lbne Abdul Mutalib, who was then concealing his being a Muslim, helped the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) by sending a speedy messenger with a letter informing him about the circumstances. The well-armed army of polytheists headed by Aim Sufian and another army (infantry) Commanded by Khalid Ibne Waleed camped near the Uhad Mountain.
Having received information about the intentions of the polytheists the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) held a meeting, wherein the majority decided to meet the enemy outside the city. The army of Islam moved out of the city on 7th of the Shawwal 3rd Hijrah after the morning prayers and by the order of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) camped near the enemy army. The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) stationed Abdullah lbne Jabeer along with fifty men equipped with bows and arrows on the top of a valley, which was strategically, and Marshal important and dangerous and ordered them "Do not move from here whether we gain victory or loose the battle." The two armies of monotheism and polytheists confronted each other. The battle started through Abu Amer a soldier of Quraish army.
In the beginning, the Islamic forces fought bravely and made the army of infidel's retreat but very soon the situation reversed.
The platoon of the bow and arrow men, who were stationed by the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) to cover the valley, thinking the battle had ended, left their place in greed of looting the booty.
Khalid bin Waleed the infantry Commander of the enemy took advantage of the situation and along with his soldiers went around the mountain and captured the valley and attacked those Muslim who were busy in plundering the booty from the rear and killed most of them.
Seventy men out of the total number of Muslims were slain and the rest of them ran away and the battle ended to the benefit of the enemy. But the Prophet (P.B.U.H.), by the sacrifice and heroism of Ali (A.S.) and the cooperation of a few others, followed and pursued the enemy and killed a number of their soldiers. Thus saving Madinah from any fresh attack.
3. The Battle of Khandaq (Ahzab)
The Jews who were expelled from Madinah because of their conspiracies and dishonesty, which they practiced against Muslims by coordination with enemies, did not sit silent and peaceful. Their chiefs approached the Quraish leaders of Mecca and provoked them to fight the Muslims and promised them all kind of help and assistance.
As a result of this movement various groups and tribes joined hands and opened a joint front against Islam. Therefore, this war is known as the war of Ahzabs or groups.
Their common army consisting and comprising of polytheists, arrogant, Jews, hypocrites and the run away from Madinah, entered a pact regarding helping each other against Islam, so that they had ventured to finish Islam.
An army of ten thousand warriors moved towards Madinah, in the month of Shawwal, the 5th Hijrah, under the Command of Abu Sufian to attack Madinah.
A few swift-moving horsemen of the Khazaa tribe reached Madinah and informed the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) about the situation.
The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) ordered the army of Islam to get ready and the Commanders of the army gathered to consult each other.
As a result of the talk, they accepted the suggestion of Hazrat Salman and dug a trench all around the city of Madinah and the Muslims defended themselves from behind the trench.
Three thousand dedicated Muslims worked tirelessly day and night to dig a trench 5 meters deep, six meters wide and twelve thousand meters long.
A few passages and bridges were made over the trenches and watchmen deputed on them. On the back side of the trench, bunkers were constructed and bow and arrow men were deputed there to defend the city.
When the army of polytheist arrived they saw that a trench was dug all around the city, which was not possible for them to cross over. They were obliged to camp beside the trench.
Abu Sufian with the motive of encouraging his forces called Hayee lbne Akhtab the leader of the Jews of Bani Nazeer tribe and requested him to meet Kaab Bin Asad, the Chief of Jews of Bani Kariza, residing in Madinah and pursue him to start a civil war in Madinah with the help of his followers so as to pave the way for the attack of Polytheist.
He did the needful, but Prophet (P.B.U.H.) had already taken precautionary measures and deputed five hundred armed men to patrol the city and keep vigilant, remain alert, and keep eyes upon those coming or going out of the city so that none of the conspiracies of the enemy matures.
The danger of internal attack was finished and the enemy army comprising of a few groups and gangs remained on the other side of the trench.
One day, Umro bin Abduwad heading five brave polytheists crossed over to the other side of the trench. Umro bin Abduwad yelled, "Oh the claimants of paradise where are you? Come here, so that I may send you to the paradise." No one plucked the courage of replying him except Hazrat Ali (A.S.).
Hazrat Ali (A.S.) rushed and reached him like a lightening and after a short conversation killed him by one stroke of his sword and raised the slogan of Takbir "Allah-hu-Akbar" from the depth of his heart.
One of the companions of Umro bin Abduwad ran away and fell into the trench. Hazrat Ali (A.S.) did not give him any chance and killed him. The rest of the three succeeded in escaping.
The might of Ali (A.S.) arm and his speedy action brought the Islamic army a big success and victory. Just as the Prophet (P.B.U.H) said: This one stroke of Ali's sword is superior to the prayers of both men and Jins ("Which they have been performing or will ever perform").
The next day Khalid bin Waleed along with a few horsemen tried to cross the trench for the sake of encouraging his army but the Mujahideen warriors of Islamic forces resisted them. Since, under these circumstances the enemy had lost their wits, the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) deputed Naeem bin Masood to create dispute and disappointment between the Jews of Bani Kariza and the polytheist so that they may break their mutual commitments.
He sent Huzaifa Yamani in the darkness of night towards the polytheist to dishearten them about the war. He did so by giving them the news of cold chilly wind's blowing and a perilous and dangerous storm. As a result, the soldiers and army chiefs entered a dispute. This resulted in Abu Sufian's departure towards Mecca along with his army in the quiet, dark night.
When the Muslims woke up for their morning prayers, they saw the enemy had flown away, and no sign of them left behind. When the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) received the news of the enemy's flight he ordered his followers to leave the bunkers and return to the city.
The end of Bani Kariza
After the battle of Ahzab (groups) the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) moved towards the fort of Bani Kariza. They were made to surrender as a result of 25 days long siege, they surrendered to Hazrat Ali (A.S.).
After their defeat the Bani Kariza requested the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) to allow them to leave Madinah but the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) turned their request down because, they after getting freedom would again conspire to break another war just like the Jews of Bani Keenka who after getting freedom caused the Uhud battle to take shape and the Jews of Bani Nazeer had flared up the Khandak battle.
Finally, they had to bow their heads to this decision of Saad Bin Ebada that all those men who had traited and helped the enemy during the war should be slain and their properties be confiscated.
The Hudaibiyyah Truce
The defeat of Quraish in the battles and repeated victory of Muslims, particularly the defeat of Taefa-e-Bani Mustalek, and accepting Islam at the hand of Prophet (P.B.U.H.) bewildered the Quraish.
The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) moved towards Mecca in the month of Dhul-Qi'dah, 7 Hijrah along with fourteen hundred Muslims with the intention of performing Hajj.
Besides spiritual and servitude benefits, another political purpose of this journey was to make it an errand and movement to give a permanent status to the Muslims in the Arabian Peninsula.
When the polytheist received the news of Prophet's (P.B.U.H.) arrival they took oath and sweard by their idols that they would not let the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) and his companions enter Mecca.
They sent Khalid bin Waleed along with two hundred horsemen to stop them from entering the city of Mecca.
On the other side, the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) arrived the land of Hudaibia through unknown ways to avoid any conflict and confrontation.
Firstly, the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) sent his representatives to see Quraish and assure them that they had not come for war & dispute but only to perform the rituals of Hajj. But they mistreated the representatives, which made evident that they were battle bourn.
The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) again made his Ashab (Companions) undertake swear of allegiance under a tree and they too assured him of faithfulness and self sacrifice.
When Quraish learnt about it, they became greatly upset and harassed and sent Sohail as their representative to negotiate over the truce.
Quraish desired that the Muslims do not enter Mecca in that year, and return without performing Hajj, and come unarmed to perform Hajj freely in the next year and during which period Quraish will bear the responsibility of the safety and security of their lives and property.
The truce took place on five conditions. Although a group of Muslims were not happy about it and they were not attentive to the fact that the truce was the prelude to the conquest of Mecca.
Their anger reached to such a climax that they were even objecting upon the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) and as per their immature idea, in that truce laid shame and humility. Particularly, they were annoyed with this part of the pact that if a Muslim came from Mecca to Medina he would be repatriated.
The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) rebuking made them understand the situation.
Imam Jaffer-e-Sadiq (A.S.) said about the importance of that truce, "The most important event of the Prophet's (P.B.U.H.) life is the truce of Hudaibiyya."
4. The Battle of Khyber
The Prophet of Islam (P.B.U.H.) along with one thousand and six hundred Muslims, moved from Madinah towards Khyber in the month of Rabi ul Awwal the 7th Hijrah. The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) took the enemy by surprise and reached swiftly the land of Rajee, which is situated between the lands of Khyber and Ghatfan.
The Prophet (P.B.U.H.), by practicing a marshal technique, splited the Jews of Khyber and Arabs of Ghatfan so that they may not help each other.
The Muslims besieged the forts of Khyber at night time and the Mujahideen, holy worriers of Islam, after having spotted the proper places hidden in the palm plantations and the valleys of Khyber waged the war and captured the valleys of Khyber one after one by their bravery and self sacrifice. But the two important valleys, which were the bases of Jews from where they attacked and threw arrows at Muslims, could not be captured.
The soldiers of Islam, by the order of Prophet (P.B.U.H.), repeatedly attacked those forts under the command of Abu Bakr, Umar bin Khattab and Saad bin Abada on three consecutive days but each time they were defeated.
The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) then said "Tomorrow I will give this banner of Islam to the one who will return after conquering this fort."
All waited for the other day to see who would be that lucky person. But who else could that be except "Ali (A.S.)."
In the morning, the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) gave the banner of Islam to Ali (A.S.) and deputed him to capture the fort of Khyber, and prayed for his success. The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) by this act wanted to prove the superiority of Ali (A.S.) upon other chiefs.
When Ali (A.S.) along with the army came near the gate of the fort the two brave, ferocious brothers Haris and Marhab attacked the Muslims vigorously so that they ran for their lives. But Ali (A.S.) by virtue of his bravery and resoluteness slew both of them. On seeing this rest of the Jews were harassed and terrified so they entered the fort and shut the gate tightly. When the Muslims who had run away, saw this they returned back and stood by Ali (A.S.). Hazrat Ali (A.S.) pounced upon the fort gate like an angry tiger, pulled apart the door and used it as his shield. Then he jumped down into the trench along with it and used it as a bridge so that the Muslims could enter the fort. It was such a heavy door that seven Muslims together could not move it.
About that astonishing power, Ali (A.S.) said, "I did not pull apart the gate of Khyber by human power but that was the help of God and power of faith, by which I did it."
Finally, the army of Islam conquered all the forts and defeated the Jews. The rest of the Jews requested the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) that they might be allowed to remain in their land for the cultivation and farming and that they would give half of the agricultural products to the Muslims.
The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) acceded to their appeal and let them go free.
The Fidak Garden
When the news of the fall of Khyber reached the Jews of Fidak they became very anxious and bewildered. They sent their representative towards the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) with the message of making truce and surrendered half of the land of Fidak to him. He bestowed it upon Fatima (A.S.) so that she may spend its income upon her own needs and that of the poor people.
After the battle of Khyber the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) moved towards the Wadi-ul Qura (valley of Qura) which was the center of Jews. He besieged and then conquered it, and handed the lands back to the owners on similar conditions as that of the Khyber i.e. they were made bound to surrender half of the agricultural products to the Muslims.
By means of this agreement the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) boosted up the economy and brought into effect the economical welfare for the Muslims so that they may face the enemies comfortably.
5. The Battle of Moota
The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) sent an ambassador to the King Basri to invite him to embrace Islam. When the ambassador reached the land of Moota the ruler arrested and killed him. After this event the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) sent sixteen preachers but only one of those survived, the rest were also killed.
The one, who had survived, escaped him and having reached Madinah informed the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) about both the sorrowful and heart aching events. The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) was much grieved and this was the very reason of the army's being sent in the Jamadi al-Thani of 8th Hijrah, when ten thousand Muslims got ready to lay their lives in the battle.
The Prophet (P.B.U.H.), before the departure of the army, said:
"The sequence of the chiefs of the military will be as such, the first chief will be Jaffar Ibne Abu Talib, the next Zaid bin Haris and the third Abdullah bin Rawaha."
If after the first being martyred the next one and even if the second and then the third gets martyred, then you select some one as your chief, yourselves.
The army of Islam moved towards Moota. When they reached near main city they received the information that Harqul the King of Rome have sent an army of one hundred thousand and another hundred thousand Arabs to besiege the Muslims.
The enemy with an army of two hundred thousand met the Muslim army of ten thousand and started the battle. Jaffar fought bravely till he was martyred. Thereafter, Zaid bin Haris took over the command till he was martyred. Following him Abdullah bin Rawaha too got martyred as a result of a brave fight.
Thereafter, the warriors selected Khalid Ibne Waleed as their chief. Khalid who was already experienced and clever thought if the battle continued all the soldiers would get killed. Therefore, he used a marshal technique and snatched the battlefield from the enemy's hands.
He ordered the soldiers to retreat at night and early in the morning move into the battle field from all the four directions so that the enemy would think that another reinforcement army has come from Madinah.
Khalid, by this strategy, terrified the enemy and the battle stopped. He returned to Madinah along with his army men.
When the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) received the news of his Kith and Kin being martyred he was much grieved and wept over it and appreciated the sagacity of Khalid.
Conquest of Mecca
The retreat of the Muslims in the battle of Moota made the Quraish intrepid and think that the Muslims were left over with no power, therefore there was no need to be afraid of them. Inspite of the Hudaibayyah peace and truce pact, they with the help of their allies Banu Baker attacked the Muslims of Taefa-e-Khazaa and killed many of them.
Abu Sufian knew that he would most certainly receive the answer to this mischief. Therefore, he availed of the first opportunity to see the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) in Madinah and make excuse and try to keep up the Hudaibayyah pact. But the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) did not give him any positive response and so he went back unsuccessful to Mecca. The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) ordered the forces to get ready and as a result ten thousand Muslim announced their willingness to participate in the war.
The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) deputed guards all around the city of Madinah so that nobody is able to go and inform the polytheist of Mecca about this event.
Hatib a senseless, pious traitor with the pretext that his relative live in Mecca and they are afraid of Quraish, wrote a letter and tried to send it to a Quraish through a woman. But very soon his plot was revealed and the letter was recovered from the woman. Hence, the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) ordered the Muslims to boycott him socially, which was worse than death for him.
On the 10th Ramadan, 8th Hijrah, the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) ordered the army to move and the Muslims swiftly and without any stoppage reached Mecca within a week's time. They camped near the city. The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) through his sagacity and war strategy ordered the Muslims to get scattered at the night time and kindle lights every where so that the enemy thinks that a large army has arrived from Madinah. As a result, the enemy will get terrified. At nighttime, the jungle was full of flames of fire lit, the noise and slogans of Muslims, the Camel's blubbering and the horses neighing. When Abu Sufain along with a group of the leaders of Quraish came to observe the situation he was dreaded and terrified and told his companions that he has never seen such a big size army.
Abu Sufain met Abbas and consulted him. Abbas gave him quarter and peace and took him along to the Prophet (P.B.U.H.)
The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) in view of the interest and benefit of Islam said Abu Sufain may assure the Meccans that whosoever seeks refuge in his house shall also have peace and quarter. Abu Sufain returned back to Mecca with quarter and frightened the people of Mecca from the Muslim army and prevented them from fighting the Muslim resulting, which Mecca was conquered without bloodshed.
A group of Muslims, particularly the refugees were nursing feelings of taking revenge from the Quraish but the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) announced the common amnesty and said, "today are the day of mercy and forgiveness not that of revenge. No one has the right to fight the people except for a few persons who must be killed where ever they be found because their crimes are not forgivable."
Then Prophet (P.B.U.H.) named those persons. The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) after a brief rest entered the Kaabah and cleaned the idols. Bilal recited the Azaan (call for prayer) and the Prophet offered his prayers along with his Ashab (Companions).
6. The Battle of Hunain
After the fall of the base of polytheist to the Muslims, those polytheists living all around Mecca were greatly horrified and harassed. Therefore, they gathered and decided that all the tribes should unitedly fight against the Muslims. All of them chose the chief of Taifa Hawazan as their general.
Having received the information about this aggregation, the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) sent a person to view and observe the situation and get information about the battle arrangement made by those tribes and on his return to Mecca present a report of it.
Departure towards Hunain
The Prophet, on getting information about the intentions of the enemy moved with a force of one thousand Mujahid warriors towards the valley of Hunain on the 5th of Shawwal, 8th Hijrah.
Malik, the chief of the polytheist's army, sent three of his men for the spying espionage of the Islamic forces.
They observed the glorious Islamic forces and reported it to their chief. Malik, thinking he did not have the power to face them ordered his men to climb the hilltops of the valley and seek for themselves strong position on those heights and when the Islamic army arrives then take them by surprise.
In the Narrow Pass of Hunain
The army of Islam arrived the valley of Hunain on the Tuesday night of the 10th of Shawwal, the 8th Hijrah.
All of them, on the Command of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) took rest in the night and at dawn time moved into the valley.
The enemies, who were lying in the ambush fully prepared, attacked them from all the four directions.
The darkness of the night, chaos created by the horses and presence of two thousand and nine hundred men who had newly and lately become Muslims, helped the enemy to a great extent and Waleed was obliged to retreat.
Only ten men were present around the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) who was defending him. The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) ordered them to call the run away for help. Abbas, with his thundering, reprimanding voice, called those who were flying away, and the enemy forces who were achieving victory in the start, were gradually becoming weak.
Finally, the defense posts of the enemy too were destroyed and they ran away leaving back all of their war equipments. The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) sent a group to chase the run away so that they are weakened to the extent that they may not be able to make a military venture in future.
Those chasing the enemy came back after accomplishing their errand, and the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) distributed the booty among his army men.
7. The Battle of Tabuk
In the month of Rajab of the 9th Hijrah, the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) received a report that the Muslims of the northeastern border of Arabia were being threatened by the Roman empire and they have made up their mind to attack the Islamic lands.
The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) after arranging strong and fit soldiers, contrary to the previous times policy when he used to conceal his aim, clearly exposed his aim and object to the people and got their attention diverted to the assault of the enemy and ordered all of them not to hesitate in extending all kind of help and assistance to the army of Islam.
People offered every thing needed for the soldiers of Islam with great fervor and enthusiasm and contributed to the war expanses.
The Hypocrite's Behavior
The hypocrites, simultaneous along with the mobilization of the Islamic farces started to poison the people ears to create anti war spirit and they horrified and harassed the people in connection with combat and facing the Roman army. They built a Mosque named "Masjid-e-Zarrar" so as to have a center for their poisonous propaganda and stop the people from participating in the Jihad. But the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) by strong and concrete attitude arrested their conspiracies.
By the order of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) the house of the Jew Sewelum, which was the focus and center of meetings of the Jews was burnt down and all their conspiracies were nullified.
An unprecedented army of thirty thousand Muslim soldiers got prepared and camped in the suburbs of Madinah. The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) took the Command of the forces in his own hands, witnessed their march, and spoke to them.
Thereafter, he fixed Ali (A.S.) on his place in Madinah and himself moved towards Tabuk along with the army men.
The soldiers of Islamic army reached the burning desert of Tabuk after having covered a journey of six hundred kilometers. But they were taken aback and surprised to see that there was no sign of the Roman army. It seemed as if those (enemies) having learnt about the movement of the Islamic forces, which were full of spirit of martyrdom, retreated northwards.
The Islamic army having stayed a clash free twenty days period over there, by the order of Prophet (P.B.U.H.) turned back to Madinah.
The Conspiracy of Hypocrites
On the way back from Tabuk, a group of hypocrites who had participated in the war because of the fear of people planned to hide in the valley of Tabuk mountains so that they might get the camel of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) terrified and make him fell down from it and kill him. But their conspiracy was revealed and all of them flew away. The soldiers of Islam wanted to kill them but the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) stopped them from doing so. On returning back from Tabuk, the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) ordered the people to demolish the "Zarrar Mosque" and they did so as per the Command of the Almighty God.
Battle of Tabuk was the expression and show of might and power of the army of Islam. All the Muslims took part in that battle. Because of this show people of the neighboring and polytheist countries witnessed the power and might of Islam and refrained from conspiring against it.
The polytheists used to perform Hajj rituals according to their own traditions up till the 10th Dhul-Hijjah the 9th Hijrah. In the same year the chapter of Holy Qur'an named Baraat or Tauba was revealed. The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) entrusted the job of recitation of these verses before the polytheist of Mecca to Ali (A.S.) and instructed him to tell them "No polytheist will enter the holy Kaabah from this year onwards and nobody will perform the circumambulation around the Kaabah in nude condition.
According to the Command of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.), Ali (A.S.) went to Mecca and recited the chapter of Qur'an "Tauba" before the polytheists and informed them about the order that the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) had given.
Mubahalah (Cursing each other)
Since the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) was sending letters to the rulers of the world, he sent a letter to the bishop of Najran and invited the Christians of that place to embrace Islam.
In this letter the bishop was asked either to accept Islam or pay Jazia tax as a backing to the Islamic Government.
The bishop had already read in the holy books about the coming of a Prophet after the Christ (A.S.). So he sent a number of delegates to Madinah to find the facts. Having arrived Madinah, they started a discussion with the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H.) and were not contented with that till such time the angel Jabriel descended with the revelation and message from Almighty God that the wise men of Najran may go to the desert of Najran and offer prayer up to a specified time. There after, every body should curse the liar.
When the time of Mubahalah approached the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) brought along with him only four persons out of the total lot of the Muslims and his associates. The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) was carrying Imam Husayn (A.S.) in his arms, Imam Hasan (A.S.) was being guided by the finger, Fatimah (A.S.) and Ali (A.S.) beside him.
When the Christians sighted them, their chief said: "By God I am seeing such faces that if they do curse the desert will turn into hell and the effects of this torment and chastisement will reach the land of Najran and there is a risk of all the Christians being killed."
As a result they accepted to pay the tax levied on Kharaj non-Muslims.
It was decided that the Christians would give two thousand Hullas (robes, cloaks) and thirty rows to the Muslims, thereafter.
The Final or Farewell Hajj
On the 25th of Dhul-Qi'dah the 10th Hijrah, the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) announced that he (P.B.U.H.) had the intention to perform Hajj that year and anyone wishing to accompany him (P.B.U.H.) might do so.
This news created the zest and fervor of keenness among the people and thousands of Muslims announced their readiness to accompany the Prophet (P.B.U.H).
The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) appointed Abu Dajana as his deputy in Madinah and moved along with his Companions.
The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) entered the state of performing Hajj (putting on the pilgrim garb) at Zulhaleefa and called out Labbayk and moved on towards Mecca.
After ten days he reached Mecca and entered the Masjid-ul-Haram and performed Hajj rituals. The next day he made a speech at Mina and giving out a sermon said, "Stability is needed and required in the affairs of religion."
On Thursday the 17th of Dhul Hijjah, the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) reached near the pond at Juhfa. The angel descended with the revelation from God, "Appoint Ali as your successor". The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) gathered the Muslims by calling them for the announcement of an important message.
Thousands of pilgrims gathered in that perching, and scorching heat to listen to the words of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.).
After offering prayers the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) climbed a height made up with the help of camel saddles and said "Praise is specified for Almighty God only. We ask help only from Him and have faith, reliance on Him. I give evidence that there is no God except God. Mohammad is his servant and Prophet. Yes, oh people, very soon I am departing from you and am leaving two weighty and most valuable things among you the holy Qur'an and my Ahl al-Bayt (A.S.) [The family members of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) including his cousin and son-in-law Ali (A.S.). His daughter Fatimah (A.S.) and two grand sons Hasan (A.S.) and Husayn (A.S.)].
These will never be separated from each other till the time they reach me on the bank of the Kauser stream (on the day of justice). Therefore, you remain resort and bonded with them and never abandon them. If you abandon them, you will get annihilated.
Then he took Ali (A.S.) by the hand and raised his hand up and said "Oh people I am the master of whosoever. Ali too is the master of him. Oh God! Be the friend of the one who loves Ali and be the enemy of the one who has enmity with him. Help the helpers of Ali and humble and surpass all those who want to humble him."
After his speech was over an angel descended from the heaven and gave the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) the good news and glad tiding that with the Wilayat (guardianship) spiritual office of Ali (A.S.) the religion of Islam became accomplished and completed. The boon and blessing of God finalized.
Death of Prophet (P.B.U.H.)
After his returning back from the journey the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) fell ill. A group took the advantage from this chance and claimed Prophet-hood but by the Prophet's (P.B.U.H.) order all of them were killed.
One day when the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) was very ill and unwell, he (P.B.U.H.) with the help and support of Ali (A.S.) visited the graves of his friends in the graveyard of Baqi. Then he (P.B.U.H.) returned home.
Day by day, the ailment of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) went on increasing till at last the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) breathed his last in the lap of Ali (A.S.) on Monday 28th of Safar 11th Hijrah, turning the whole of the Islamic World mournful and grieved.