In Ramadan, 2 AH, 313 Muslim fighters or Companions of the Prophet (pbuh) went outside Madina Al-Munawara to attack a Quraishi trade caravan coming from Sham (present Syria). The caravan was very big and had one thousand camels. Abu Sufyan, the enemy of Islam, was leading this caravan.
When the Muslims or Companions of the Prophet (pbuh) immigrated (Hijrah) from Makkah to Madina Al-Munawara, the polytheists attacked and robbed their houses. For this reason, the Prophet (pbuh) wanted to bring back the Muslims' money. Besides he wanted to punish the Quraish. So, he began threatening their trade caravans.
The Muslims or Companions of the Prophet (pbuh) camped near Badr wells. They were waiting for the arrival of the caravan. After a period of time, they heard bad news. The news was that Abu Sufyan changed the course of the caravan. Meanwhile, the Quraish were preparing a big army with good weapons to save the caravan from the Muslims.
The Muslims went out to control the trade caravan. They were not thinking about facing the big army.
Our Master the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) asked his companions' opinions.
Umar bin al-Khattab stood up and said: It's Quraish and its disloyalty (i.e. the Quraish are always disloyal). By Allah! It (the Quraish) has not become abase since it became strong. And it has not believed (in Allah) since it disbelieved (in Allah).
The Muslims or Companions of the Prophet (pbuh) were very worried when they heard Umar bin al-Khattab's words. Moreover, some of the Muhajirun (Emigrants) thought about coming back to Madina Al-Munawara.
During those sensitive moments, Hazrat Miqdad ibn Aswad al-Kindi (ra) stood up and said with enthusiasm:
Allah's Prophet, go on obeying Allah's order! We will support you! By Allah, we won't say as the Jews had said to their prophet: You and your Lord, go and fight! We will stay here! We say: You and your Lord, go and fight! We will fight with you.
Happy expression appeared on the Prophet Muhammad's (pbuh) face. Then the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) asked the Ansar (Helpers): What shall I do?
Sa'd ibn Muadh was a chief of the Banu Aus tribe answered: Allah's Prophet, we have believed in you. We will confess that which you have brought is true. We will promise to hear and obey! Then, Allah's Prophet, go on and do whatever you wanted! By Allah! If you asked us to cross the Red Sea, we would do!
The Muslims or Companions of the Prophet (pbuh) were full of enthusiasm. They got ready to face the polytheists with hearts filled with faith. The battle of Badr started and Muslims or Companions of the Prophet (pbuh) won it. Then they came back and remembered Hazrat Miqdad ibn Aswad al-Kindi's (ra) words.
Al-Miqdad belonged to Kinda's tribe. He escaped from his tribe and inhabited in Makkah. There he belonged to a man called al-Aswad bin Abid Yaqut al-Zuhry. So, people called him al-Miqdad ibn al-Aswad. In connection with al-Miqdad, this verse came down: Call them with their fathers' names. For this reason, people called him al-Miqdad ibn al-Aswad.
When Miqdad ibn Aswad became twenty-four years old, then he heard about our Master the Prophet Muhammad's (pbuh) mission. He hurried to believe in the new religion. Miqdad ibn Aswad kept his Islam a secret. He met our Master the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) secretly. Thus, he was among the earlier Muslims. He always felt the Muslims' sufferings.
Our Master the Prophet Muhammad's (pbuh) ordered his Sahaba (Companions of the Prophet (pbuh)) to immigrate (Hijrah) to Madina Al-Munawara. They immigrated one by one or group by group to avoid persecutions of polytheists.
Then Allah, the Glorified, ordered His Prophet to immigrate (Hijrah) to Madina Al-Munawara. Miqdad ibn Aswad rejoiced at the safety of Allah's Prophet. He admired the Muslim young man Imam Ali bin Abu Talib (as) who sacrificed his life to save our Master the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) from polytheists' swords.
When our Master the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) immigrated (Hijrah) to Madina Al-Munawara, the polytheists attacked and robbed the Muslims' houses. So, our Master Master the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) thought about threatening the Quraishi trade caravan as a punishment.
Hazrat Hamza ibn Abdul Muttalib headed the first company and went towards al-Ays area near the Red Sea. There he met the polytheistic troops headed by Abu Jahl. No fight took place because some Arab leaders mediated between the two parties.
In Shawwal, 1 AH, another company went out. The number of the company was sixty fighters. Its aim was to get to Rabigh Valley to threaten the Quraishi trade road between Makkah and Sham (present Syria).
Miqdad ibn Aswad decided to join the polytheistic troops. He took advantage of the condition to immigrate to Madina Al-Munawara. Utbah ibn Ghazwan became Muslim by converting to Islam secretly. Miqdad ibn Aswad headed for him. They both agreed on joining the polytheistic troops.
Abu Sufyan led two hundred fighters and headed for Rabigh Valley. There, the polytheists met the Muslim or Companions of the Prophet (pbuh) company. The two sides reciprocated arrows.
In the meantime, the polytheists were surprised to see two of their fighters (Miqdad ibn Aswad and Utbah ibn Ghazwan) running towards the Muslim company. Besides, they heard the Muslims' yells sounding in the desert: Allah is great! Allah is great!
Abu Sufyan was full of spite and ordered his fighters to come back to Makkah. He was afraid that there might be secret Muslims among his fighters.
Miqdad ibn Aswad lived happily in Madina Al-Munawara, the Muslims were full of faith, for the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) treated them all kindly. Our Master the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was very careful of the Muslims. He was always thinking about their security and future in here and hereafter.
Miqdad ibn Aswad was strong believer and one of the most trusted and loyal Sahabi (Companions of the Prophet (pbuh)). He loved Allah's Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). He was always going with him to wage holy war against the polytheists.
One day, the polytheists attacked Madina Al-Munawara pastures and robbed them of their cattle. So, our Master the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) asked the Sahaba (Companions of the Prophet (pbuh)) to chase them. Miqdad ibn Aswad was among the first Sahabi who obeyed the order of Allah's Prophet. Our Master the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) led two hundred horsemen to chase the attackers, but they ran away. After the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) had dismayed the polytheists, he came back to Madina Al-Munawara. That raid was named Badr Minor Battle.
Near Badr wells, the Muslims heard that the polytheists would form an army. Besides Abu Jahl led the army of polytheists.
Our Master the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) asked his Sahaba (Companions of the Prophet (pbuh)) opinions. Some Sahaba, companions advised him to come back to Madina Al-Munawara. Meanwhile the Muslims were very worried.
During those moments, Miqdad ibn Aswad stood up and said enthusiastic words. The words made the Muslims full of faith. When the Battle of Badr broke out, the Muslims fought bravely. In the meantime, Our Master the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) asked Allah to grant His believing slaves a victory. After only a few hours, the Muslims or Companions of the Prophet (pbuh) could defeat the polytheists.
Sahaba (Companions of the Prophet (pbuh)) took revenge on Abu Jahl and Umayyah ibn Khalaf, for their torture of Muslims. Besides, the Muslims captured few polytheists, such as al-Nadhar bin al-Harith, Akabah bin Abu-Myad, and others.
Miqdad ibn Aswad captured al-Nadhar bin al-Harith. The Muslims took the prisoners of war and headed for Madina Al-Munawara. When they reached al-Athel area, our Master the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) ordered a Sahaba to kill al-Nadhar bin al-Harith.
Al-Nadhar bin al-Harith had tortured the Muslims in Makkah. So, the Muslims prayed for Allah to save them from his torture.
For this reason, Allah's Prophet ordered Imam Ali bin Abu Talib (as), the hero of Islam, to kill al-Nadhar bin al-Harith to save the deprived Muslims from his torture.
Miqdad ibn Aswad said: Allah's Prophet, he's my prisoner!
The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) knew that Miqdad ibn Aswad wanted ransom. So, he raised his hands towards the sky and said: Allah make Miqdad ibn Aswad rich with your favour! Miqdad ibn Aswad became satisfied with the Prophet Muhammad's (pbuh) prayers. So, he handed the enemy of Islam and of humanity to the Muslims to punish him.
The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) asked his Sahaba, companions to treat the other remaining prisoners of war kindly. Besides he released some prisoners without ransom because they were poor. And he asked the prisoners who could read and write to teach the Muslims' children as ransom.
After their defeat at the Battle of Badr, the polytheists decided to take revenge on the Muslims. So, they formed a big army. The number of the army was three thousand fighters. The polytheists advanced towards Madina Al-Munawara. When they reached it, they left their camels and horses to graze on its pastures. They did that to challenge the Muslims.
The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) asked the advice of his Sahaba, companions. Some Sabhaba, companions advised him to stay at Madina Al-Munawara, and some advised him to go out of it. The Muslim young men were eager to start the battle outside Madina Al-Munawara. So, the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) decided to go out of Madina Al-Munawara.
The Muslim army got to Mount Uhud. There, the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) prepared his troops to start the Battle of Uhud. The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) placed fifty archers on Ainain, an important point on Mount Uhud, from which they could command the approaches along which the Quraish could maneuver into the Muslim rear. These archers, were given instructions by the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) as follows; "Use your arrows against the enemy cavalry. Keep the cavalry off our backs. As long as you hold your position, our rear is safe. On no account must you leave this position. If you see us winning, do not join us; if you see us losing, do not come to help us." The orders to this group of archers were very definite. Since Ainain was an important tactical feature and commanded the area immediately around it, it was imperative to ensure that it did not fall into the hands of the Quraish.
When the battle broke out, the polytheist's horsemen tried to attack the Muslims from the back. So, the bow men faced them, stopped their attack and forced them to withdraw. The polytheists headed by Khalid bin Walid came back to their positions.
During those moments, the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) ordered the Muslims to launch an opposite attack to drop the polytheists' banner to weaken their spirits. Strong fights took place around the banner. When the banner dropped from a fighter's hand, another raised it. Finally, the banner dropped. So, the Muslims defeated the polytheists. The polytheists ran away. Their idol fell off the camel.
The archers saw the polytheists running away and their Muslim brothers chasing them and collecting booty. They came down the Mount Uhud point Ainain. Their leader reminded them of our Master Prophet Muhammad's (pbuh) advice, but they said: The polytheists have run away, there's no need to stay.
During that moment Khalid bin Walid and his horsemen launched a severe attack. So, the remaining bow men could not resist the attack. The polytheist horsemen took the Muslims by surprise. Hence, the Muslims were in chaos. In the meantime, some Muslims were killed and others were wounded. When the polytheists saw the Muslims' chaotic condition, they came back and carried their banner. So, the Muslim Army was between two forces. The horsemen were at their back, and the infantry were in front of them.
The polytheists tried to kill Our Master the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) to destroy Islam totally. But the sincere companions such as Imam Ali bin Abu Talib (as), Miqdad ibn Aswad, al-Zubair, Mus'ab bin Umair, Abu Dujana al-Ansary, Sahal bin Hunaif and others resisted the polytheists bravely. They defended the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) against them.
Our Master the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) decided to withdraw his troops to Mount Uhud to defend themselves against the polytheists easily. While the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and his troops were withdrawing, they fought the polytheists till they reached Mount Uhud heights. So, after a while, the polytheists stopped their attacks.
The Battle of Uhud was a lesson for the Muslims. They learnt a lot from it. They learnt how to obey the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) at any rate, for obedience to him meant victory, and disobedience meant defeat.
Our Master the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was badly wounded. The reason was that he ordered the archers not to leave their place on Mount Ainain at any rate, but they forgot his order. The Arab tribes scorned the Muslims' shaken reputation. Meanwhile, the hypocrites and the Jews rejoiced at their misfortune.
For this reason, our Master the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) wanted to restore Islam to its reputation. So, he reorganized his troops to chase the polytheists.
Though wounded, the Muslims obeyed and supported our Master the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). So, he took them and headed for a place called Hamra al-Asad.
The Jews were surprised to see the Muslims going with enthusiasm to face the polytheist's army a day after the Battle of Uhud.
The polytheists thought about attacking Madina Al-Munawara again to destroy Islam completely. So, Abu Sufyan had camped at al-Rouhaa.
Abu Sufyan heard about the Muslim Army's coming. He was worried, for he knew that the Muslims' defeat was because of the archers neglect. So, he withdrew his fighters to Makkah. He tried to frighten the Muslims. Thus, he sent them his threats to Hamra al-Asad.
The Muslims did not pay attention to his threats. They went on camping at Hamra al-Asad for three days. They were burning fire at night to challenge the polytheists. Abu Sufyan was afraid. So, he ordered his troops to withdraw to Makkah. Thus, our Master the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) could restore Islam to its former reputation in the Arab Peninsula.
Miqdad ibn Aswad deeply believed in Allah and His Prophet. So, Our Master the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said about him and about some of his companions: Allah has ordered me to love four (persons), and He has told me that He loves them. These four persons are Ali, al-Miqdad, Abu Zar and Salman.
Our Master the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) passed away. Some Sahaba, companions were certain that his successor would be Imam Ali bin Abu Talib (as).
Still some Muhajirun (Emigrants) and Ansar (Helpers) held a meeting in Bani Saida's Saqifa (Shelter). There was a serious competition for the Caliphate. Finally, Abu Bakr Siddique was appointed as first caliph.
Miqdad ibn Aswad, Salman al-Farsi, Ammar ibn Yasir, Abu Zar Ghaffari, Abu Ayyub al-Ansari, Abbas ibn Abdul Muttalib, and others were surprised at that appointment. So, they stood by Imam Ali bin Abu Talib (as).
Imam Ali bin Abu Talib (as) insisted on his attitude. His wife Fatima al-Zahra, our Master the Prophet Muhammad's (pbuh) daughter, supported him. Fatima al-Zahra was displeased with what had happened after her great father's passing away. Fatima al-Zahra passed away six months after Abu Bakr Siddique's Caliphate.
Imam Ali bin Abu Talib (as) was forced to acknowledge Abu Bakr Siddique to avoid disunity among Muslims. Then the other Sahaba, companions acknowledged him, too.
Miqdad ibn Aswad taught people the Noble Qur'an. His reading became famous all over Sham (present Syria). Miqdad ibn Aswad stayed loyal to Allah and His Prophet. He did not change his opinion.
Miqdad ibn Aswad saw third caliph Uthman deviating from our Master the Prophet Muhammad's (pbuh) teachings. However, he stayed loyal to his religion Islam till his end, when he was almost ninety years old. Then he passed away in Dimashq (present Damascus) during the lifetime of Imam Ali bin Abu Talib (as).
The Ziyarat of Sahabi (Companions of the Prophet (pbuh)) Hazrat Miqdad ibn Aswad al-Kindi (ra) is five miles from Zainabiya, on the road to the centre of Dimashq (present Damascus).